A recently released dataset from Marx, Matt; Aaron Fuegi contains citations from USPTO patents granted 1947-2018 to articles captured by the MS Academic Graph (ID) from 1800-2018.
Files, tab-separated, are available at link : https://zenodo.org/record/3338601
The main file, pcs.tsv, contains the resolved citations matching patent number, MAG ID, the original citation from the patent, an indicator for whether the citation was supplied by the applicant, examiner, or unknown, and a confidence score (1-10) indicating how likely this match is correct.
There is also a PubMed-specific match in pcs-pubmed.tsv.
Authors also made availabel source code for generating the patent citations to science in pcs.tsv is available at https://github.com/mattmarx/reliance_on_science. Source code for generating jif.zip and jcif.zip (Journal Impact Factor and Journal Commercial Impact Factor) is at https://github.com/mattmarx/jcif.
Scripts and programs are mainly for stata & linux (DO files and sh scripts).